Simulation Models

Simulation is defined as the representation of a real or fantastic system, using software which is supported by mathematical models and graphics, in order to study this system and its environment.


Almost all the areas of nowadays life are using simulation for a variety of purposes and through different simulation models. Because of this variety there is a need to discriminate simulation models by the area of interest, the level of user’s requirements, the aims of the systems study and even more by other minor gravity characteristics.

The enormous growth of simulation usage in the last years has offered the international community the capability to understand the importance of different kinds of simulation in addition with the environments and interrelations between the entities of the same system and the entities of different systems.


In military simulation, there are many levels that can be simulated based on the level of operations, the entities’ analysis and the kind of operations, the complexity of operations environment and finally the interoperability between different models in order to provide realistic simulation.

In our pages you can find how simulation models can ensure users that the profit from using simulation is related to the right choice of simulation model which is connected to the system’s requirements and its environment specifications.

Beyond this, it is necessary to refer that simulation models can produce realistic results for a system’s study when certain methodologies are used for it. Without a methodology the level of realism is not going to be in high standards. The development of Computer Assisted Exercises for all kinds of simulation is a great challenge for the international community who has to foresee the importance of this development.

For developing a constructive simulation model a great programming effort and significant time is needed. There is also necessary for the development team to have knowledge and experience of operational research tools (sometimes in a very high level) and mathematical background, for providing code that will support the realistic computation of simulated activities. On the other hand, graphics and map experts are also needed for interface and topography issues.

Constructive simulation models can be used for a various set of applications, mainly military and civil military cooperation applications, logistics support, healthcare, homeland security – border control and critical infrastructure security.

CAX methodology is the most known framework for using constructive simulation in order to provide realistic training for high level HQ’s. This methodology can be customised for providing also evaluation of operational planning, support operational planning optimisation and tactical training for lower HQ’s, as its main components are reformable and can meet the needs of the above mentioned activities.

Depending on the level, types of operations, visualisation requirements, budget, infrastructure and personnel capabilities, CAX planners and experts can choose the right constructive simulation model. Most of times, countries or agencies are buying simulation models licences without having a deep market research and requirements studies regarding their own training and operations needs and they are trying to fit theirs needs to the model’s capabilities. This is not the right way to use constructive simulation, as there is a mismatch between simulation and the needs of the agency that uses it.

For bridging this gap, a service oriented policy (and not a product – simulation model oriented) regarding the use of constructive simulation can obtain a cost and time effective solution and support advanced training and planning.

The most known and used constructive simulation models:

JTLS (Joint Theatre Level Simulation)

JCATS (Joint Conflict & Tactical Simulation)

MARCUS Simulation

KRONOS Virtual Simulator

KORA Tactical Simulator

GeSi Tactical Simulation Model

SWORD Tactical Simulator

Virtual Battle Space 3 (VBS3)

King’s Game Simulation Model

One Semi – Automated Forces (OneSAF)

ITC – Integrated Training Capability

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